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2. Inspection Practices forPressure VesselsDownstreamSegmentRECOMMENDED PRACTICE 572THIRD EDITION, NOVEMBER 2009 1 3.Special NotesAPI publications necessarily address problems of ageneral nature. With respect to particular circtJmstances,local,state, and federal laws and regulations should bereviewed.NeIther API nor any of APIs employees, subcontractors,consultants, commIttees, or oltler assignees make anywarranty orrepresentation, either express or implied, with respect to theaccuracy, completeness, or usefulness of theinformation containedherein, or assume any liability or responsibility for any use, orthe results of such use, of anyinformation or process disclosed inthis publication. Neither API nor any of APIs employees,subcontractors,consultants, or other assignees represent that useof this publication would not infringe upon privately ownedrights.Classified areas may vary depending on the location,conditions, equipment, and substances involved In anygivensituation. Users of this recommended practice (RP) shouldconsult with the appropriate authorities having jurisdiction.Usersof thIs RP should not rely exclusively on the Infonnation containedIn this document Sound business, scientific,engIneering, and safetyJudgment should be used In employing the Infonnation containedherein.API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers,manufacturers, or suppliers to warn and properly train andequiptheir employees, and others exposed, conceming health and safetyrisks and precautions, nor undertaking theirobligations to complywith authorities having jurisdiction.Information concerning safetyand health risks and proper precautions with respect to part/cularmaterials andconditions should be obtained from the employer. themanufacturer or supplier of that material, or the materialsafetydatasheet.API publications may be used by anyone desiring todo so. Every effort has been made by the Institute to assuretheaccuracy and reliability of the data contained In them; however,the Institute makes no representation, warranty. orguarantee Inconnection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims anyliability or responsibility fur loss ordamage resulting from itsuse or for the violation of any authorities having jurisdictionwith which this publication mayconflictAPI publications arepublished to facilitate the broad availability of proven. soundengineering and operatingpractices. These publications are notIntended to obviate the need for applying sound engineeringjudgmentregarding when and where these publications should beutilized. The formUlation and publication of API publicationsIs notintended In any way to inhibit anyone from using any otherpractices.Arty manufacturer marl!.ing equipment or materials inconformance with the marking requirements of an API standardissolely responsible for complying with all the applicablerequirements of that standard. API does not represent,warrant, orguarantee that such products do In fact conform to the applicableAPI standard.All rights reselVed. No part of this woric may bereproduced. translated, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted by any means, eleclronlc. mechanical, photocopying.recording. or othefwise. wi1hoot prior written permission from thepublisher. Contact thePublisher, API Publishing Services, 1220 Lstreet. NW, Washington. DC 20005. Copyright e 2009 AmeriClJnPetroleum Institute 4. ForewordNothing contained in any APIpublication is to be construed as granting any right, byImplication or otherwise, for themanufacture, sale, or use of anymethod, apparatus, or product covered by letters patent Neithershould anythingcontained in the publication be construed asinsuring anyone against liability for infringement of letterspatent.Shall: As used in a standard, shall" denotes a minimumrequirement In order to confoon to the specification.Should: Asused in a standard, "should" denotes a recommendation or that whichis advised but not required in orderto conform to thespecification.This document was produced under API standardizationprocedures that ensure appropriate notification andparticipation inthe developmental process and is deSignated as an API standard.Questlons concerning theinterpretatlon of the content of thispublication or comments and questions conceming the proceduresunder whichthis publication was developed shOUld be directed Inwriting to the Director of Standards, American PetroleumInstitute,1220 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005. Requests for permission toreproduce or translate all or any partof the material publishedherein should also be addressed to the director.Generally, APIstandards are reviewed and revised. reaffirmed, or wtthdrawn atleast every five years. A one-timeextension of up to two years maybe added to this review cycle. Status of the publication can beascertained from theAPI Standards Department, telephone (202)682-8000. A catalog of API publications and materials ispublishedannually by API, 1220 L street. NW. Washington, DC20005.Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted tothe Standards Department. API. 1220 L Street, NW.Washington, DC20005. [email protected] " 5. ContentsPage1 Scope .... . .... ..... . ... . .... . ... . ......... . ....... . ............ ............ . . . .... . ... 12 Nonnative References. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Terms andDeftnitions ........ . . . . .. ........ . .. . ..... . ..... ..... .. ......... . ............... 23.1 Deftnitlons . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23.2 Acronyms and Abbreviations . .. . . ........ . .. . ..... ....... " . ....... . . . .. . ........ . .. . ..... 64 Introductionto P...ssure Vessels . . ...... ............ . . . ...... . . . .... .................... . 54.1 General.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64.2Methods of ConstrucUon .. . . . .................. . . .. . .... .... . ............ . ... . . . ...... . . . 64.3 Materials ofConstruction . . . . .... . ....... .. .... . .. .. . . .. . ... .... . ..... . ............... .. . . 84.4 Internal Components andequipment .. . . ......... . .... .. . ..... . ...... . . . ....... . . ......... 74.5 Uses of Pressure Vessels .. .. . . ..... .. .. . . .. . .. . . . . ... . ... . .. . . .. . .. . . .............. 84.6 Design and Construction Standards ... . ... . .......... . ..... . . .. ..... . ......... . ..... . .... : . . 96Re sons for Inspection ............... . .. . . . .... . ................ . . . ... .. ......... . . ... 125.1 General .. . ........ .. . .. ....... .. ....... .. .......... . ...... ........... . .......... . .... . 126.2 Safety.. . . ... .. .. .. ...... . .. ......... . ....... . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166.3 Reliability andEfficient Operation . . .. . .. . ..... ... ........ . .. . . ..... . ... . . . .. . ............ . . 166.4 RegulatoryRequirements . ... . ............. . .. . . . ... . ... . ....... .... . . .. .. . .. . .... .. .. .. .. 166 Inspection Plans ... ......... . .. .. .... . .. . ... . . .. . .... ...................... . . ... .. . .... 166.1 General .... . .... ....... .. ... .. ... . . . ... .. ...... . .............. . .... ..... . .... . ..... . ... 168.2 Inspection for Speolftc Types ofDamage . .. . . ......... . ... .. ........ .. ............ ....... . .. 168.3 Developing Inspection pr.ns . .. ................ . .. . ..... .. ..... .. .. . ......... .. .......... . 186.4 RBI . ..... . ......... . ....... . . .. . ....... .. . . . .. . .. . ... . .. . . . ....... .. . ... .... ........... 177Frequenoy and Extent of Inspection . .................... . ........ .. ....... . ............ . ..177.1General ..... . .. ...... .... ... . . ... . .... . ........ ........................ .. ...... . ... .. .. 177.2Opportunitiesfor Inspection . . .. . ... . ......... . .... . .. . ... .......... . .... . .... . .. . ........ 188Safety Precautions andPreparatory Work .... . . . ......... . ..... . ..... . ....... ............... 188.1Safety Pr808utions . . . . . . ... ..... ..... ....... . .................... . ... . .......... . ... . ..188.2Preparatory Work... .. . ..... . . . ........ . . . ........ ...... . ... . .... . ......... . ....... . ... . 199 InapectlonMethods and Limitations . ................. . .... . . . . .. . . .. ........ . ... . ....... . .. 219.1 General. . . ..... . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219.2 Thickness Measurements....... ... . .... . ........ . ... ... . .... . ..... . . ..... . ... . . . ........ 229.3Externallnspeotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 249.4 Internallnspec;tion . . ..... . .. ... ....... . . ...... . . .. . ..... . .. . . . . .. ..................... 339.6 Special Methods of DeteotIng MechanicalDamage .. ..... . .......... . ............... .. .. . .. ..469.6Metallurgical Changes and In.sltu Analysis of Metals ...... ... ............................. . .. 468.7 Testing . . .. . . .......... . ...... . ... . . . ..... . .. . .... . . . ...... .. ... ......... . ........ . ...4710 Condition Assessment and Repair ... ... . .... . ............. . ...... . ...... . ... .. . ........ . ..6010.1 General .. .. . . . ................... . ... .... . ........ .. ...... . . . ............ . ... . .. . ... .6010.2VlsuallnspectJon . .. . . . . .. ............ . .... . ............ ................ . ....... . .......6010.3 Thickness Measurements. . ..... . ...... . ........ . . . .... . ........ .. . .......... .. ... . ..... 6110.4 Remaining LW. . ... . ... .. .... ..... . ......... . . . .......... . ... .... .. ...... . . . . . .... .. . ..6110.6 Methods of Repair ... ... .... . .. .. ..... .. ... ... . ... . ..... .. .... . . .. ..... . . . .... . ... . ....6110.6 Repair of Supporttng Vessel Equipment. ... ............................ . .. .. .. . ...... . .. .. . 63v 6.Page11 Records and Reports .... .. .. . .... ... ..... ............ .......... ... ........ .. ........... 6311.1 Records ........ ........................... . ......... . ....... ........... .... . ...... . . 5311.2 Reports ...... ..... . ......... .. .. ...... ... .... .. .................... . . ................. 63Annex A (informative) Exchangers ..... .. .. ........ .. .... . ......... ... ...... . ............. . . . . ..64Annex B (infonnatlve) Towers .......................... . . .............. .. ....... .... ........... 71Annex C (informative)Sample Record Fonns ................................... . . . .. ... . . .. .. ... 12.Figures1TYpe 316 Stainless-clad Vessel.............................. . ......... . ...................72Weld Me1a1 Surfacing ... . . . ........................ .............. .. .. . .... . .. .. ........ 83Strip-llned Vessel ... ...... .... ..... ......... . ........ . ...... .. ..... ................. .. ... 8.. Prlnclpal Strip-llnlng Methods. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96Hex Mesh Installation forRefractory Lining .................... . . .. ..... . ........... ... . .. . 96Reinforced Refractory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 107Vertical Heat Exchanger . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 118HOrizontalVessel. ............ . .. . ... . ............ .... ... ........... . ... .. ......... ..... 129Spheres ..... . . . ........................... . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1310 Horton Spheroid(Noded) ... ...... . . . ........ . ...... . ....... ... ..... ........ . ............ . 1311 ProcH_ Tower ...... . ........ ......... . .. . . ...... ... . ............. .... ........... ...... 1412 Exchangers ....... .. . .. . . ...... . .. .. ... . .... . ...... .. ...... .... . . .......... .... ...... .. 1413Exchanger Installation and Foundation ....... .. .... ..... .. .. ... ........ . .............. . .... 2614 Severe Detllrloratton ofAnchor Bolts .... . .. . . . . ...... . ....... .. ... . ................ ... . ... Z716 Method of Obtaining Vessel ProfileMeasurements .... .. . ....... .......... ...... . ... . . .......3216 . COlTOslon In Channe .. . . ............... . .... . . . ...... .. .................. . .......... 3511 Crack In Weld Seen byPT ... " ................ . ... .. . ................ .................. 3718 Hydrogen Blistering ... . . . . ............. . ...... . ..................................... . ...3819 Self-vented Hydrogen Blisters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 3920 Radiograph of S If-vented Hydrogen BUstersIn Carbon Steel ...... . .... ........ ..... ..... . .... 3921Cafalytic.....ctor Intemals--Cyclones . .. . . .. . ..... . . . ....... . .. . ... .. ... . .................. 4122 Corrosion TabMethod of Determining Metal Loss on Vessel LInings . . ......... ... .. . . ........ 4323 Strtp-tlner Deterioration .... ... . ....... . . . . . ..... .. ..... .. ... .................. ......... . 4424 Detertorated Refractory-tile Lining ... . .. . ..... .. . .. . . .................... . .............. 4526 Steps InUsing Special Equipment to Test Individual Tubes . ....... ... ....... ......... ...... .. . 49A.1Properly Rolled Tube . ....... . . .. ....... ... ... .. ... . ............. . . .............. ........ . 56A.2Tube-bundle Type of Tank Heater . ............. ........... . ..... ..... .... . ................ . 57A.3Air-cooledExchangers . . .. .. . . ...... .... ............ ... ....... . ... ...... .. .. . .. . ....... . 68AA Clean-servlce Double-plpeColis .. .............. .. ...... . . ... . . ...................... . ... . 69A.S Tank Suction Heater withEverything but Forward End Enclosed; Shell Suction Nozzle EnclosedIn Far End . ... .. ... . .. . . . .. . .. ...... .. ... .. ... ...... ........ ..... ... . ... ...... . 60A.6 Fln-ty Tubes InDouble-plpe Coli . .......... . . . ... . .. .. ...... .. .......... ........ . ...... . . 60A.7 Plate-type Exchanger . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61A.8Tubes Thinned at Bafftes ..... . .. . .... .. ........ ......... ...... .. ... . ... ... . . ... .. .... 61A.& Tubes Fretting atBam . ..... ... ... . ...................... ...... .... . . .... .... ... . . 82A.10 Eroslon-corroslon Attack at Tube Ends............... . ....... ... .. . .. ............. . .... 83A.11Heat Exchanger Parts ... . .. . ....... .................. ................ ................ 66A.12 Heat Exohanger Types ....... ... ........ .. .. .. ... . .. . . ........................... . ...... 708 .1 Typical Trays In a T0N8r. . .. .. . ....... .. ...... . ....... ......... .. ............ ........... 71B.2 Random Packing In a Tower. .. . .................. ...... ... ..... ... . . ..................... 71B.3 Tnays withDowncomers . . .. ........................ . .. . .... ....... ....... .... .. . .. . . . . . .. 72B.. Bubble Cap Flow Path . . . . .. ........ .. . .. ..... . ....... . ...... .. . .......................... 72B.5 Tow.r Stripping and RecttftcatJonSection ............. . ....... .... ..... ..... ... . ............73 7. p.ageB.6 DlskJDonut Tray . ..... ....... .. .......... ............................. ....... . ..... .... 74B.7 Ba.... TrayArranlement . . . .. .. ... ......... . . .. ..... .. .. ................ . , ... . ....... .. 76B.8 Sieve Tray ..... .. ..... .... .. ................ ..... ... ... .... ..... . ... .................. nB.9 SI ve Tray Dlstortlon . . ................................................................78B.10 Typical Trayed Tower. ... ..... ..... .. ................... . .. ....... .. ....... . .. ......... .. . 79B.11 FloatValves with Two Weights ...... ...... .. .. . .... ........................................ 80B.12 Fixed V.tves .. . ..... ... . ...................... . ..............................80B.13 Bubble Cap Vatves.................................................. . ........... "...... 81B.14 Extruded Vatves .... . . .... .. ..... . .. ... ...... .... . . .. .. .. . ... . ... .......... .... ... ... 81B.16New Floating Valve Tray .... ..... ..... ..... ... ... .. ............. .. .. . .... ... ..... . ... .. 82B.18 Caged Valves .. .. ... ........ . .. ... ...... .. ..... .. ..... .. . ........... ... .. ... . . . . .. .. . . 82B.17 Typloal Packed Tower Drawing . .. . ... ... ... .... ....... .. . .. ... ... . ...... . .. ............ . 83B.18 Random Packing, Pall Rings ..... . .... .. . ........ . .... . .. ... .. ... .. ...... . .. ........... 84B.19Structured Packing . . . ... . . . . " . ..................... ............................... 84B.20 Grid-style Packing. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85B.21 Diagram ofRequired Scaffolding ............... ........................................... 87B.22 Hexagonal Manways.. . . . .. ......... ... . . ... . .. . .... . ... ... .. ...... .. .... . ...... ..... . 88B.23 Standing all and Water .. . ......... .. .. ... . . ......................................... ...88B.24 Trays Collapsed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 89B.25 Corroded Anchor Bolting ........................................................ .. . . .89B.26 Corroded Anchor Bolting ... . .. .. .. ... . ................... . ... . ... . .... . ... ... .. ... .. .. .. .90B.27 Cracked and Bulged Fireproofing ....... .... . .. .. .................. . . . ....... ..... .. ...... . 90B.28 Debris InSkirt .. .. . . .. . . . .. .......................... . ... . . ... ... . . .. ... .. . ...... . 91B.29 Preliminary InspecUon . ..... ........ . ... . . ..... .............. . . ... .. ....... ........ . . .. 91B.30 Bed Dlmage t Preliminary Inspection .. .... .. . .. ... . .... ... . ....... . . ......... . .. ...... 92B.31Manway Corrosion . . . .. . .. ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 92B.32 Manway Uner Damag . ... .. . .. . . ................................. " ........... ..... .. 92B.33Corrosion on Gask t SeaUng Surface .. . ... ........................... . .................. 93B.34 Corrosion onGasket Seatfng Surface ...... ................................................ 93B.36 SurfaceCorrosion of Shell ....... . ..... .. .. . ............ .............. . . . ........ .. .... 94B.38 Inspection From theBottom Head........................................................ 96B.37InspecUon of Packing via Riser ........................ .. . .. . ........ ... . . . . . . . .. ..... .. 96B.38 Dernister BypassDeposits .. .. .. ... ........ . ................................ .. ... . . ..... 95B.39 Fouled Demtster Pads ... .. . ..... ....................................................... 96B.4OFaulty Deml$ter InstallaUon .... ....... . . ............. . . ......... ... .. . . .......... . .... 988 .1 Preferential Corrosionof the Head to Shell Weld ......... .. . .. .. .. ... .. ............... . .... .. 97B.42 Head Seam prer.rential Corrosion . ..... .. .. .. .. ................ . .................... 97B.43Preferential Corrosion of the Sh II .. .......... ... ...... ......... ............ . ... .. ... . . .. 98


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